Abstract: In recent years, silica materials have great application value due to their low density, low toxicity, good biocompatibility, excellent chemical and thermal stability, and excellent morphology and structure controllability. Modifying it and introducing organic functional groups to prepare functionalized silica materials will help to further improve its performance and expand its scope of application. Because of its excellent performance and potential application value, functionalized silica materials have attracted the attention of many researchers, and phosphate-based functiona-lized silica materials are one of the research hotspots. This article summarizes the research progress of phosphate-based functionalized silica materials, and introduces its preparation and application. The preparation method mainly includes phosphoric acid silane coupling method and post phosphorylation method. In phosphoric acid silane coupling method, based on the introduction of phosphoric silane, it is divided into post grafting method and copolycondensation method.The post grafting method is mainly through phosphoric silane to two modification of silicon oxide materials, forming Si-O-Si bonds on the surface of the material to introduce phosphoric acid groups. The copolycondensation method is mainly to hydrolyze and condense phosphoric silane and other silanes to form a silicon-oxygen silicon network to introduce phosphoric acid groups: post-phosphorylation based on the chemical bonds formed in the reaction, it is mainly divided into Si-O-P bonding method, C-P bonding method, and C-O-P bonding method. Among them, the Si-O-P bon-ding method uses phosphoric acid or phosphoric acid derivatives to affect silicon on the surface of silica materials. Hydroxyl modification introduces phosphoric acid groups by forming siloxyphosphorus bonds. The C-P bond method is mainly to perform Arbuzov reaction or Mannich reaction on functionalized silica to form C-P bond to introduce phosphoric acid groups. The C-O-P bond method mainly involves the modification of epoxy-functionalized silica with phosphating reagents, and the introduction of phosphoric acid groups in the form of C-O-P bonds through epoxy ring opening reaction. With the excellent complexing ability of phosphoric acid groups, sufficient acidic sites, excellent proton self-detachment ability, good biological activity and excellent performance of silica itself, phosphoric acid-based functionalized silica materials have excellent performance and broad application value in adsorption, catalysis, electrical conductivity and biomedicine. Finally, we looke forward to the future development of phosphate-based functionalized silica materials.
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