Toluene Removal from Waste Gas by modified Activated Carbon: a Review
LI Rui1, SHI Yuzhen1, NING Ping1, GU Junjie1, GUAN Qingqing1, GENG Ruiwen2, mENG Fanfan3
1 Faculty of Environmental Science and Engineering,Kunming University of Science and Technology,Kunming 650500 2 Faculty of mechanical and Electrical Engineering,Kunming University of Science and Technology,Kunming 650500 3 Yunnan Beikong Enterprises Water Group Limited,Kunming 650500
Abstract: As a toxic volatile organic compound, toluene can cause serious harm to the environment.Activated carbon adsorption is a classic process for toluene removal, nevertheless, common ordinary activated carbon usually suffered from high ash content, poor adsorption selectivity, uneven pore size distribution and limited surface functional groups.For the sake of acquiring higher efficiency and selectivity in adsorption of target substances, modification of activated carbon should be conducted inevitably.Numerous attempts have been made by researchers to figure out the optimal modification method, which concern the selection of the appropriate modification substance, processing technology, operating conditions and the dosage of modifier. At present, the primary modification methods of activated carbon mainly include acid and alkali modification, loading ofheteroatoms and compounds, low temperature plasma modification, and microwave modification etc.In terms of acid and alkali modification, it can reduce the ash content by removing the acid and alkali soluble substances in activated carbon, thus enlarging the specific area and pore volume of activated carbon.Different from acid modification, alkali modification can increase the number of basic functional groups on the surface of activated carbon, enhance the surface π-π dispersion force to further improve the overall non-polarity, which is beneficial to the adsorption of weakly polar toluene.Considering the loading of heteroatoms and compounds, it utilizes the complexation between heteroatoms/compounds and toluene to significantly improve the adsorption ability of activated carbon.However, excessive loading of heteroatoms and compounds will be likely to block the pore channels and reduce the adsorption capacity of activated carbon for toluene.The low temperature plasma modification features low energy consumption, higher efficiency and wide application range, which is regarded as a novel environment-friendly technique for toluene removal.It can not only improve the surface chemistry properties, but also affect the interfacial physical properties.Therefore, low temperature plasma modification exhibits a promising prospect in the field of toluene removal.Regarding to microwave modification, more active sites can be generated on the surface of activated carbon thanks to the microwave energy.With the introduction of reducing gas, the acidic functional groups on the surface of activated carbon could also be decomposed and the alkalinity can be enhanced as well.microwave heating can remove impurities in the pores of activated carbon, whereas, with the increase of temperature, the carbon skeleton will shrink, which is not conducive to the adsorption.In particular, the power of microwave irradiation, the concentration of the modifier and the irradiation duration are the key factors to be controlled in microwave modification. In this article, the research progress of adsorption of toluene by activated carbon and modified activated carbon is reviewed.The adsorption performances and mechanisms of various modified activated carbon for toluene are investigated by comparing and analyzing their isothermal adsorption models.It is demonstrated that the specific surface area, channel structure and surface chemistry properties are the main factors that affect the adsorption performances.The influence of various modification methods on the physical and chemical properties of activated carbon are discussed, which is of great significance to improve the adsorption efficiency and lay a theoretical foundation for developing more efficient modified activated carbon in toluene removal.Finally, the problems remain to be solved and future trend for activated carbon modification are put forward, which provided a valuable information for further study and industrial application.
1 Balanay J A, Floyd E L, Lungu C T.Annals of Occupational Hygiene,2015, 59(4), 481. 2 Stenzel m H.Chemical Engineering Progress,1993, 89(4), 36. 3 Xu W, Liu J L, Sun K.Chemical Industry and Engineering Progress, 2016, 35(4),1223 (in Chinese). 许伟,刘军利,孙康.化工进展,2016, 35(4),1223. 4 Dwivedi P, Gaur V, Sharma A, et al.Separation & Purification Technology, 2004, 39(1), 23. 5 Chen K, Zhu L, Yang K.Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2015, 32, 189. 6 Campesi m A, Luzi C D, Barreto G F, et al.Journal of Environmental management, 2015, 154, 216. 7 Vaughan Jr R L, Reed B E.Water Research,2005, 39(6), 1005. 8 Lin S,Xu m, Zhang W, et al.Journal of Hazardous materials,2017, 335, 47. 9 Kim C, Lee H, Juelfs A, et al.Carbon, 2017, 121, 63. 10 Economy J, Daley m, Hippo E J, et al.Carbon, 1995, 33(3), 344. 11 Yang X, Yi H, Tang X, et al.Journal of Environmental Sciences.2018, 67,104. 12 Smeets P J, Woertink J S, Sels B F, et al.Inorganic Chemistry,2010, 49(8), 3573. 13 Zanin E, Scapinello J, Oliveira m D, et al.Process Safety & Environmental Protection,2017, 105, 194. 14 mèçabih Z.Journal of Encapsulation & Adsorption Sciences,2017, 7(1), 40. 15 Kumar P, Pournara A, Kim K H, et al.Progress in materials Science,2017, 86, 25. 16 Sooksawat N, meetam m, Kruatrachue m, et al.Environmental Letters,2017, 52(6), 539. 17 Wang H, Zhu T, Fan X, et al.Carbon, 2014, 67(1), 712. 18 Shahtalebi A, Farmahini A H, Shukla P, et al.Carbon, 2014, 77, 560. 19 Joung H J, Kim J H, Oh J S, et al.Applied Surface Science,2014, 290(4), 267. 20 Ramos m E,Bonelli P R, Cukierman A L, et al.Journal of Hazardous materials, 2010, 177(1), 175. 21 Hu m m, Emamipour H, Johnsen D L, et al.Environmental Science & Technology,2017, 51(13),7581. 22 Chen J P, Wu S.Langmuir the ACS Journal of Surfaces & Colloids,2004, 20(6), 2233. 23 mao H, Huang R, Hashisho Z, et al.Research on Chemical Intermediates,2015, 42(4), 1. 24 Qian Q, Gong C, Zhang Z, et al.Adsorption-journal of the International Adsorption Society, 2015, 21(4), 333. 25 Zhang X, Gao B, Creamer A E, et al.Journal of Hazardous materials,2017, 338, 102. 26 Kim K J,Ahn H G.microporous & mesoporous materials,2012, 152(152), 78. 27 Gupta V K, Nayak A, Agarwal S.Environmental Engineering Research, 2015, 20(1), 1. 28 Liu Y, Li Z,Shen W.Recent Patents on Chemical Engineering,2008, 1(1),27 29 Das D, Gaur V, Verma N.Carbon, 2004, 42(14), 2949. 30 Song L, Wang C Y, Chen H L, et al.Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2017, 11(1), 457 (in Chinese). 宋磊,王春颖,陈虹霖,等.环境工程学报,2017, 11(1), 457. 31 Song Y, Qiao W m, Yoon S H, et al.New Carbon materials,2005, 20(4), 294. 32 Lahaye J.Fuel, 1998, 77(6), 543. 33 Vega E, Lemus J, Anfruns A, et al.Journal of Hazardous materials, 2013, 258(16), 77. 34 Li L Q, LiangX, Shi R, et al. CIESC Journal, 2013, 64(3), 970 (in Chinese). 李立清,梁鑫,石瑞,等.化工学报, 2013, 64(3), 970. 35 Tu T T, Lee m, Kuo S T, et al.Indoor & Built Environment, 2016, 25(5), 772. 36 Daifullah A A m, Girgis B S.Colloids & Surfaces A Physicochemical & Engineering Aspects,2003, 214(1), 181. 37 Lopes A S D C, Le O De Carvalho S m, Brasil D D S B, et al.American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 2015, 6(6), 528. 38 Qiu J, Wang G, Bao Y, et al.Fuel Processing Technology, 2015, 129(129), 85. 39 Wjihi S, Erto A, Knani S, et al.Journal of molecular Liquids, 2017, 238,402. 40 Pei B.Study on adsorption improvement of low concentrations toluene on active carbon.master's Thesis, Tongji University, China, 2008 (in Chinese). 裴冰.活性炭吸附净化低浓度甲苯气体工艺改进研究.硕士学位论文, 同济大学, 2008. 41 mohammed J, Nasri N S, Zaini m A A, et al.International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 2015, 102, 245. 42 Kim S Y, Yoon Y H, Kim K S.International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 2016, 13(9), 2189. 43 Qiu W, Dou K, Zhou Y, et al.Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 2018, 26(1),81. 44 Yang Z, Yi H, Tang X, et al.Chemical Engineering Journal, 2017, 319,191. 45 Tiwari S, Bijwe J.Procedia Technology, 2014, 14, 505. 46 Carvalho m N, motta m D, Benachour m, et al.Journal of Hazardous materials, 2012, 239-240(18), 95. 47 Kim K J, Kang C S, You Y J, et al.Catalysis Today, 2006, 111(3), 223. 48 Kim K J,Ahn H G.Carbon, 2010, 48(8), 2198. 49 Teng H, Yeh T S, Hsu L Y.Carbon,1998, 36(9), 1387. 50 Ke T.Study on modification of activated carbon and its adsorption capacity of VOCs.master's Thesis, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, China, 2009 (in Chinese). 柯涛.活性炭的改性及其对VOCs吸附能力的研究.硕士学位论文, 西安建筑科技大学, 2009. 51 Zhang S P.Study on performance of modified activated carbon adsorption of toluene waste gas containing water vapor.master's Thesis, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, China, 2013 (in Chinese). 张树鹏.改性活性炭吸附含水气的甲苯废气的性能研究.硕士学位论文, 西安建筑科技大学, 2013. 52 Chen Y L, Wu Q T, Sun F T.Environmental Engineering, 2016, 34(2), 91 (in Chinese). 陈玉莲,吴秋芳,孔凡滔.环境工程,2016, 34(2), 91. 53 Liu H B, Yang B, Xue N D. Environmental Science, 2016, 37(9), 3670 (in Chinese). 刘寒冰,杨兵,薛南冬.环境科学, 2016, 37(9), 3670. 54 Liu Z J, Huang Y F, Liu J H. Natural Gas Chemical Industry, 2014, 39(2), 75 (in Chinese). 刘志军,黄艳芳,刘金红.天然气化工(C1化学与化工),2014, 39(2), 75. 55 Guo W, Zhang H.Journal of Tianjin Polytechnic University, 2013, 32(4), 52 (in Chinese). 郭薇,张华.天津工业大学学报,2013, 32(4), 52. 56 Zhang J X.Adsorption of VOCs on modified activated carbon by supported Cu, mn.master's Thesis, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, China, 2014 (in Chinese). 张俊香.负载Cu、mn改性活性炭吸附VOCs的性能研究.硕士学位论文, 西安建筑科技大学, 2014. 57 Yi F Y, Lin X D, Chen S X, et al.Journal of Porous materials, 2009, 16(5), 521. 58 Li C Y, Wu P, Fan X, et al.Chemistry and Industry of Forest Products, 2016, 36(2), 9 (in Chinese). 李长玉,吴鹏,樊星,等.林产化学与工业, 2016, 36(2), 9. 59 Li m, Lu B, Ke Q, et al.Journal of Hazardous materials, 2017, 333, 88. 60 Chen J, Qin Y, Chen Z, et al.Chemical Engineering Journal, 2016, 293, 281. 61 Gregis G, Schaefer S, Sanchez J B, et al.materials Chemistry & Physics, 2017, 192, 374. 62 martínez F, Pariente I, Brebou C, et al.Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology,2014, 89(8), 1182. 63 Zhang Z L, Luo J m, Zhang P Y, et al.China Environmental Science, 2006, 26(b07), 56(in Chinese). 张忠良,罗吉敏,张彭义,等.中国环境科学,2006, 26(s1), 56. 64 Liu H B,Jian X, Wang X, et al. Environmental Science, 2016, 37(4), 1287 (in Chinese). 刘寒冰,姜鑫,王新,等.环境科学,2016, 37(4), 1287. 65 Park E J, Cho Y K, Kim D H, et al.Langmuir the ACS Journal of Surfaces & Colloids, 2014, 30(34), 10256. 66 Wei C K, Li J, Zhu T L, et al.Chinese Journal of Environmental Engineering, 2008, 2(2), 239 (in Chinese). 魏长宽,李靖,朱天乐,等.环境工程学报,2008, 2(2), 239. 67 Qiu J S.New Carbon materials, 2001, 16(3), 58(in Chinese). 邱介山.新型炭材料,2001, 16(3), 58. 68 Luo F.modification of adsorption performance of carbon materials by nonthermal plasma.Ph.D.Thesis, Zhejiang University, China, 2009 (in Chinese). 罗凡.低温等离子体改性碳材料吸附性能的研究.博士学位论文, 浙江大学, 2009. 69 mushtaq F, mat R, Ani F N.Energy Conversion & management, 2016, 110, 142. 70 Ye W, Gao Y, Ding H, et al.Fuel, 2016, 180, 574. 71 mao H, Zhou D,Hashisho Z, et al.Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 2015, 21, 516. 72 Liu X, Xie Q, Bo L, et al.Applied Catalysis A General,2004, 264(1), 53. 73 Cao X Q, Huang X m , Liu S R, et al. Environmental Science, 2008, 29(10), 2868 (in Chinese). 曹晓强,黄学敏,刘胜荣,等.环境科学,2008, 29(10), 2868. 74 Cao X Q, Huang X m, Liu S R, et al.Journal of Xi'an University of Architecture & Technology (Natural Science Edition), 2008, 40(2), 249 (in Chinese). 曹晓强,黄学敏,刘胜荣,等.西安建筑科技大学学报(自然科学版), 2008, 40(2), 249. 75 Zhou L X, Peng J H, Qian T C, et al.Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, 2011, 27(2),187(in Chinese) 周烈兴,彭金辉,钱天才,等.化学反应工程与工艺, 2011, 27(2), 187. 76 Zhou L X.Performance and mechanism of adsorption of benzene and toluene on activated carbon.master's Thesis, Kunming University of Science and Technology, China, 2011 (in Chinese). 周烈兴.活性炭吸附处理苯和甲苯气体的性能及机理研究.硕士学位论文, 昆明理工大学, 2011. 77 mohammed J, Nasri N S, Zaini m A A, et al.Desalination and Water Treatment, 2016, 57(17),7881. 78 Pak S H, Jeon m J, Jeon Y W.International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation,2016, 113, 195. 79 Tiwari V K, Chen Z, Gao F, et al.Journal of materials Chemistry A,2017, 5(24), 12131. 80 Zhang J X, Huang X m, Cao L, et al.Environmental Engineering, 2015, 33(1), 95 (in Chinese). 张俊香,黄学敏,曹利,等.环境工程, 2015, 33(1), 95.