Abstract: With the advance of ITER and CFETR, issues concerning materials become a serious problem which limits the development of fusion energy. Blanket is an important components for energy transform, tritium sustain and radiation shielding. The development of structural materials which fit the requirement of the harsh service environment has become a research focus worldwide. Various blanket structural materials such as reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (RAFMs) have been developed for decades. Based on the Roadmap of Fusion Energy of China, the neutron irradiation dose in the structural materials can reach 10 dpa in Phase 1, and 50 dpa in Phase 2. Until now, there are no materials that can satisfy both the harsh working environment requirement and engineering building requirement. RAFM steels are the main candidate for the blanket structural materials. Several specification of RAFM steels have been deve-loped worldwide, and the database has been established. However, limited by the narrow working temperature range and the low creep strength at high temperature, RAFM steels cannot reach the requirement of the CFETR Phase 2 and future fusion reactor. Two method have been proposed, one is adding oxide dispersion phase into the steel to promote the high creep performance, the steels obtained by this method is called oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODSs). This method can be further classified into two kinds depending on if the mechanical alloyed (MA) is needed in the manufacture process. The other method is based on computational thermodynamics modelling. The density of MX phase can be increased by modifying chemical composition and thermomechanical treatments. The ODSs obtained by MA have the best performance at high temperature and under irradiation, but it should be noted that the MA process is of high cost and low efficiency. The none-MA ODSs and modified RAFM steels have the properties close to those of the MA ODSs, and they are much cheaper than the MA ODSs with potential for large-scale manufacture. Except for structural materials based on iron, vanadium alloys and SiC composite materials are all candidates for blanket structural materials with some good properties over the steels. For vanadium alloys, their working upper temperature is low and they are not compatible with hydrogen isotopes, which limits the application of vanadium in fusion reactor. For SiC composite materials, the joint technology and large-scale manufacture remain as problems. For future fusion reactor, the irradiation dose of the structural materials is larger, thus the current candidate materials may not fully satisfy the requirement. In the future, two aspects should be attached great attention to, one is exploring the performance potential of existing materials with the help of new ideas and new methods of material design and preparation, the other one is development of new materials like the metallic glass composites and high-entropy alloys. According to the Roadmap of Fusion Reactor Materials of China, we review the development of the structural materials of the fusion blanket in this article. The development of RAFM steel, mechanical alloyed (MA)oxide dispersion strengthened steels (ODSs), vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC has been introduced. In recent years, new types of structural materials emerge, such as mo-dified RAFMs and none-MA ODSs, which have also been described in this article. Finally, the authors look ahead the development of advanced structural materials with better performance.
徐玉平, 吕一鸣, 周海山, 罗广南. 核聚变堆包层结构材料研究进展及展望[J]. 材料导报, 2018, 32(17): 2897-2906.
XU Yuping, LYU Yiming, ZHOU Haishan, LUO Guangnan. A Review on the Development of the Structural Materials of the Fusion Blanket. Materials Reports, 2018, 32(17): 2897-2906.
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